傳承人

清油燈下的“皮影夢”——記長沙市非遺項目傳承人朱國強

時間:2015/9/9 9:27:30  作者:謝璐  來源:湖南日報  查看:989  評論:0

               清油燈下的“皮影夢”——記長沙市非遺項目傳承人朱國強

 

  8月23日晚,北京市東城區東方花園酒店演藝廳內鑼鼓喧天,“紀念抗戰勝利70周年皮影戲全國巡演”第四站在此拉開帷幕。舞臺上,正上演《狼牙山五壯士》,惟妙惟肖的皮影造型、生動俏皮的演繹方式,引來臺下觀眾熱烈喝彩。

  幕布后,53歲的長沙市望城區皮影藝人朱國強神情專注,一手操縱著“八路軍”,一手操縱著“日本鬼子”,口里邊唱邊念,雙腳打著節奏,汗如雨下。此刻,他的內心是喜悅的——他的全國巡演夢,正一步步成為現實。

 

  曾經“萬人空巷”,如今觀眾寥寥

  多年前,長沙坊間流傳著一句俗語“瀏陽的鞭子,河西的班子”。“河西的班子”指的就是望城一帶的皮影戲班子,與瀏陽鞭炮齊名。

  朱國強是皮影世家第五代傳人,15歲開始跟著父親學戲,一唱就是38年。

  回憶往昔,朱國強頗為自豪:“1952年,省里成立皮影藝術劇團,團里清一色是望城人,我的父親朱蓮章就是其中的主力,他們創作完善的《龜與鶴》曾多次出國演出。”朱國強珍藏的毛澤東、賀龍等領導人與其父的合影,印證著他的敘述。

  說起當年的盛況,朱國強眼里閃爍著興奮的光芒,“所到之處,鄉親們歡呼雀躍,爭先恐后地叫我們去自家唱,經常是一戶人家的戲剛唱完,胡琴、鑼鼓、幕布等工具就被好幾戶人家分搶走。”

  在那個娛樂稀缺的年代,看戲是村里最“洋氣”的消遣,朱國強所在的戲班子一年要唱400多場戲,想看戲的村民要提前一個月預約。逢年過節更忙,有一年“七月半”,他們一天之內馬不停蹄地趕了12個場子。

  朱國強說,他們到過湖北荊州,到過江西萬載,印象最深刻的一次是1980年在益陽南縣的北河口公社,“我們在一個空曠的打靶場上演,聲音通過大喇叭放出去,吸引了上萬人觀看,真可謂‘萬人空巷’!”

  然而,隨著電影、電視、電腦慢慢普及,看戲的人越來越少了。如今,朱國強一年演出不到100場,認真看、喜歡看的觀眾更少。觀眾最少時,只有一個人。

 

  家底搭進皮影戲,無怨無悔

  “鄉下漁翁收了釣,看牛牧童轉回程。庵堂寺觀鐘鼓響,秀女房中點紅燈……”

  7月底的一個上午,朱國強坐在靖港古鎮的“皮影藝術博物館”門口,以手拍腿打著節拍,隨口哼起了皮影戲《五臺會兄》的段子,起承轉合間,余韻回蕩。

  隨著皮影戲淡出舞臺,唱戲的人生活艱難,紛紛轉行。如今,全望城還兼職唱皮影戲的只有4、5個人,朱國強如果接到表演邀請,就把這幾個人召集起來,臨時組成一個班子;有時候叫不齊人,只能一人頂起4人的活。一年的收入也就3到4萬元。

  雖然艱難,但朱國強從沒想過轉行:“影子戲對別人來說可能只是一個飯碗,但對我來說,這是祖祖輩輩流傳下來的‘傳家寶’,是支撐我的信仰,是我唯一的夢想!”

  實際上,自入行以來,朱國強一直在為皮影戲的保護和傳承而努力,他給自己取了個藝名叫“重亮”,寓意皮影戲能再現過去的輝煌。

  多年來,他四處奔波搜集老道具、老劇本,整理謄抄的劇本已近百萬字。只有初中文化的他克服重重困難,撰寫了4萬多字的論文《望城影子戲》,又自籌資金著手出版……最令他驕傲的,便是一手創立了“皮影藝術博物館”。

  這座博物館有200多平方米,包含2層樓、5個展廳,有朱國強搜集整理的劇本、樂器、道具、歷史文獻等展品近2000件。走進館中,玄關處,各式文獻資料展示著皮影戲的源遠流長;中廳里,墻角擺放的行箱、清油燈和搭臺竹棍透露著老藝人的謀生方式,喇叭、京胡、鑼、鈸等傳統樂器讓人好似聽到了一場熱鬧的大戲;再入里屋,1000多張不同造型的皮影掛滿整間屋子,威風凜凜的關公、喜笑顏開的壽星、憨態可掬的豬八戒……仿佛娓娓述說著歷史故事。

  這么些年過去,朱國強在他的“皮影夢”上投入數十萬元,把家底都搭在了里面,還背上債務,妻子忍無可忍,8年前離他而去。

  盡管酸楚,他卻不悔:“祖宗留下的好東西,需要人傳承下去,我們不堅持唱,影子戲就會走向消亡,對不起祖先呢!”


  傳統老藝術何去何從

  “口唱千古事,手操百萬兵。四弦絲絲語,鼓磬艾艾鳴。”這是一首古詩對皮影戲的描述。作為有著兩千多年歷史的民間藝術,望城皮影戲2013年入選長沙市市級非物質文化遺產項目,今年入選省級非物質文化遺產項目,朱國強本人也在去年被評為長沙市非遺項目傳承人。

  “別看舞臺小,沒有扎實的童子功是玩不下去的!”朱國強很早就是行里的“全侉子”,吹、拉、彈、唱、操作皮影、雕刻制作、劇本編排都在行,一人最多可以操作十幾個角色。

  “只可惜,一身的武藝沒有人繼承!”朱國強長嘆。

  皮影戲市場萎縮,學戲的人越來越少。為了皮影藝人不斷代,他打出了“免費收徒”的旗號,然而,堅持最久的徒弟也只學了一個多月。

  然而,在另一個地方——湖南省木偶皮影藝術保護傳承中心,皮影戲這門古老藝術換上“新裝”,紅紅火火地上演,平均每年在各地巡回演出200多場。

  “我們對觀眾的定位是青少年、兒童,對傳統皮影戲做了大量改良和創新。”該中心非遺研究部部長彭澤科介紹。

  首先是劇目上的創新,他們編創了大量兒童劇,比如《人狼同舞》、《肥貓哥》等,孩子們很愛看;其次,在表現手法上,他們將電影技巧融入其中,加以現代化的舞美、音樂、燈光,利用蒙太奇將皮影戲包裝得更時尚;再次,他們大力改良傳統皮影,比如以楊麗萍的孔雀舞為原型創作的劇目《雀之翎》中,皮影人物連手指都能在操作下捏成鳥雀狀。

  對于官方劇團的這些創新,朱國強欣慰之余也有自己的擔心:“最原生態、原汁原味的老皮影藝術沒有得到傳承。”

  對老朱的擔憂,彭澤科予以一定的贊同:“以前我們也是現場唱奏的,但受到資金制約,逐漸減少了現場唱奏的人員,如今都是提前錄好音,現場用音響播放。”

  談到如何更好地保護皮影戲,彭澤科與朱國強有著共同的見解——一方面希望政府加大補貼力度,讓年輕人帶工資學戲,政府買單、送戲下鄉;另外,希望有企業家投資,在皮影演出、工藝品制作等方面走上產業化道路。

  朱國強的年紀大了,唱腔沙啞了,清油燈下的幕布黯淡了,當年追著要看皮影戲的人們記憶也斑駁了。皮影戲,這一民族藝術的精粹,將何去何從?是該把一切交予市場,還是由政府兜底保護?朱國強一直在等著那個答案。


主辦:長沙市文化旅游廣電局

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