傳承人

銅官窯新生代 泥巴玩出新花樣

時間:2016/12/14 15:02:46  作者:陳曉丹 攝影:陳曉丹  來源:長沙晚報  查看:1341  評論:0
 
銅官窯新生代_泥巴玩出新花樣
琳瑯滿目的陶器

銅官窯新生代_泥巴玩出新花樣
劉嘉豪

銅官窯新生代_泥巴玩出新花樣
劉其睿

銅官窯新生代_泥巴玩出新花樣
李珍香

銅官窯新生代_泥巴玩出新花樣

  從望城石渚到誓港,不過十五里河岸,可這小小區域,卻是長沙銅官窯的發源地。一千多年前,這里“古岸陶為器,高林盡一焚。焰紅湘浦口,煙濁洞庭云”,窯工們繁忙地穿梭在一個個火紅的窯口間,產出的窯器出口到29個國家和地區。
 
  如今的銅官,千年窯火依然傳承,一代代窯人在這里休養生息。銅官作為長沙市一個重要的文化與休閑勝地,吸引著廣大市民。周末閑暇,人們徜徉在千年古鎮,領略著迷人的風光人文,欣賞著陶藝之美,也體驗一把玩泥巴的樂趣。
 
  在銅官,也活躍著一群年輕的陶藝人,他們是80后、90后的銅官窯新生代。
 
  玩柴燒的“泥人劉”傳人
 
  受訪者:劉嘉豪,男,1993年生人,銅官“泥人劉”第四代傳承人,大學藝術專業畢業,先后獲得多項工藝美術和創意項目大獎,湖南省工藝美術協會會員。
 
  “泥人劉”鋪面在銅官街西頭,十分醒目。劉嘉豪曾祖父是工藝美術大師劉子振,人稱“泥人劉”。店里的泥塑栩栩如生,門口一尊一米高的傣族女孩,身材凹凸有致,服裝色彩斑斕,表情活靈活現;還有很多群塑,或是船家女擺渡,或是孩童玩耍,或是一群照相的村姑,手工精湛得讓人難以置信。可是,第四代“泥人劉”劉嘉豪沒有跟父親劉坤庭學泥塑,卻玩起了柴燒。
 
  口述:我在銅官街上長大,從小身邊就有很多窯工,每天上學放學都要經過那些窯口,泥地上到處是碎瓦窯渣。很長一段時間我不覺得銅官窯有什么了不起,不過是日常用具,或者一些泥菩薩。直到我長大了去天津,看到天津“泥人張”的興旺蓬勃,聽他們說“北有天津泥人張,南有望城泥人劉”,我忽然意識到我一定要為“泥人劉”做點什么。
 
  2014年大二時,我在學校組織了陶藝工作室,后來注冊創辦了“銅官柴燒”。此后開發設計了很多傳統長沙窯與現代柴燒結合的作品。那一年,我邊上學邊開始接掌“泥人劉”事業,只是我走了另外一條路——柴燒。
 
  傳統的氣窯上色靠釉,燒出來的東西比較穩定;而柴窯上色靠的是火和灰,通過火焰與落灰在器皿上留下天然的紋理和顏色,常常有意外驚喜和變化。人們問我為什么要做柴燒,我覺得銅官窯不能拘泥在老手藝,應該有新的個性。創新燒制方式就是為銅官窯注入新元素,未來籌建文化創意園,也是想集結同道的年輕陶藝人,扎根銅官,玩出技藝,以時尚多元的方式做大銅官窯。
 
  改變銅官生態的“外來戶”

  受訪者:劉其睿,1983年生人,畢業于湖南工藝美院環境藝術專業,作品先后八次獲得全國工藝美術最高獎,湖南省陶瓷協會會員。

  “兆明藝墟”位于銅官街東頭,是一個由舊廠房改造而成的陶藝工作室。上世紀七十年代這里是棉織廠和童車廠,長沙陶藝家劉兆明、劉其睿父子入駐后,把這個廢墟改造成了巨大的LOFT空間,木、鐵、不銹鋼、磚、繩索、電線……各種材料穿插搭配,設計出一個兩千多平方米的現代空間。見到劉其睿時,他正在工作室大搞裝修,劉兆明說:“我這個兒子太能干,粉刷、油漆、切割、做陶、燒窯,樣樣里手!”作為銅官窯的外來人口,他們改變了這里的藝術生態。

  口述:我算是長沙市最早玩涂鴉的人。那是2003年,我剛剛高中畢業。有店子開張要涂卷閘門什么的就會叫我去,涂一次給少許報酬。大學時受父親影響,我迷上了做陶。2007年畢業后開始跟著父親做陶,不久接手了這個舊工廠,慢慢把它設計成一個LOFT空間。我們花半年時間做主體工程,現在還在完善,這個過程非常有意思,設計師最大的快樂就是從無到有,永遠做第一個。

  我追求一切有趣的事情,追求個人表達。在我看來,做陶充滿樂趣,藝術創作要考慮自己想做出的東西,而不是別人希望做出的東西。把漢字字形應用于陶器就是我目前最感興趣的,而我拿獎的作品也都與漢字字形有關。中國的毛筆書寫有它的特點,收提筆都有不同走勢和鋒芒,這在英文字形中是沒有的。如果把英文字形化成中文字形,再展現在陶器上,就會特別有意思。

  邵陽妹子尋師富興窯

  受訪者:李珍香,1990年生人,湖南邵陽人,銅官富興窯第九代弟子,從小隨父母做竹編,對手工藝有著強烈的愛好和追求。

  富興窯的鋪面在銅官街中段,第八代傳人彭望球是湖南省工藝美術大師。走進富興窯,馬上被琳瑯滿目的茶器花器、缸壇瓦罐所吸引。彭望球研發了自己的茶陶器和茶陶品飲術,在他布滿陽光的天臺,我們烹煮黑茶,茶香花香溢于四處。他的弟子李珍香坐在我們面前,目光堅定而又帶著一絲羞澀的笑。彭望球說,這個徒弟是“飛天蜈蚣”,卻是所有徒弟中最好的。

  口述:當我高中決定退學時,班上同學一個個把我拉到走廊“談心”。我“流浪”了很長一段時間,從事過很多工作,卻沒有一個讓我想做一輩子。

  2015年過年后我偶然來銅官窯玩泥巴,小小的泥巴在我手中隨便造型就變成了花瓶、煙灰缸、杯子。后來我有意控制這坨泥巴,可能是太用力,泥巴產生了對抗……玩泥巴充滿未知性,我十分喜歡,決定好好找個老師。偶然看到師傅的微信,個性簽名是“只管玩泥”,后來師傅問我:“想做器還是器皿。”我思考了幾分鐘回答:“做器。”師傅告訴我八個字:“器能載道,器皿載物。”

  就這樣我只身從邵陽來到銅官,一呆就是兩年。開始幾個月師傅沒教任何東西,只讓我煮茶。當時心里不服,可在煮茶中我學會比較杯子內外弧度怎樣做才會好拿;里面的弧度怎樣才不會阻礙水的流動;杯子對于手與唇的觸感怎樣才最好……我漸漸明白了師傅的用心:銅官窯是生活窯、實用器,要讓人在使用中找到愉悅是我們的第一位追求。

  我做器不追求造型的絢麗和線條的流暢,以質樸實用為上。我這個“飛天蜈蚣”很幸運找到了一個開明的師傅。玩泥巴現在是我的生活的一部分,它甚至能承載容納我的整個人生。

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