傳承人

鄔建美:湘繡猶未央

時間:2017/3/31 15:13:04  作者:張志勇  來源:中國藝術報  查看:1002  評論:0
 
鄔建美:湘繡猶未央
四羊方尊(湘繡)

  湘繡是帶有濃厚湘楚文化印記的刺繡品種。

  早在兩千五百多年前的春秋戰國時代,湘繡就是朝廷的受寵貢品。近半個世紀來,考古工作者曾在湖南先后發現了不少麻布、錦、絹等絲織品、紡織品,其中不少是繡品,尤其以長沙馬王堆西漢古墓出土的數十件刺繡衣物堪稱巧奪天工的藝術杰作。

  湘繡以長沙為中心,在漫長的人類文明進程中,當地勞動人民精心創造了這一民間工藝,無論歷代宮廷貴族還是平民百姓,湘繡均是廣為應用的日常裝飾品和實用品。它記錄著絢麗輝煌的古老文明,又以其獨特的藝術魅力和應用價值歷千年而不衰。

  2006年,湘繡被列入首批國家級非物質文化遺產名錄,迎來了以傳承為主題的歷史時期。文化的傳承不是延長或者移位,其中既有衰減也有增量,有創新,才能有增量,有積累,文化才能賡續流傳。中國工藝美術大師鄔建美就是傳承湘繡并為之提供增量的代表人物之一。

  為繡而生

  上世紀60年代,鄔建美出生于長沙沙坪鎮,這里是有名的湘繡之鄉。

  繡花是中國女性的傳統,在繡鄉尤其如此。一口銀針,十個玉指,百束絲線,繡出來的是世間百態,萬物風華。

  耳濡目染,鄔建美從小就熟悉了這套工作。起初出于好奇,她會趁媽媽去做家務的空當,跑去繡花架子上偷偷繡上幾針。偷繡了幾次之后,被媽媽發現了,并沒有責怪她,反而跟爸爸夸贊她手性不錯,繡花的機會逐漸多了起來,也不再是簡單的好奇和好玩。

  衣畫而裳繡,是自古以來就有章服制度。在民間,女性也會用刺繡裝點自己和家人的生活,除此之外,刺繡還是一項重要的謀生方式。上世紀七十年代,長沙縣湘繡廠在沙坪鎮上設有湘繡站,鎮上的婦女經常從站里接一點被面、枕套的刺繡活,往返繡站的跑腿活就讓小女孩來做。

  有一次,媽媽讓鄔建美去湘繡站送“花” ,再接“花” 。沒想到鄔建美接了一個百子圖被面回來,卻把媽媽嚇壞了。

  百子被源于百子圖。百子的典故最早出于《詩經》 ,歌頌周文王子孫眾多。傳說周文王有很多兒子,在路邊撿到雷震子的時候,正好一百個,所以說文王百子,被認為是祥瑞之兆,古代有許多“百子圖”流傳至今。沿用到婚禮中,也就有了百子被,寓意子孫昌盛、萬代延續,而經由手工繡成的百子被也會被當成家傳之寶,代代相傳。

  要在被面上繡100個小孩,花費近百個工時,稍有不慎,不僅工錢沒有,還要倒賠被面、繡線錢。媽媽急得吃不下飯,鄔建美知道闖了禍,但也不肯服輸:“既然接了,就會想辦法繡好。 ”

  她虛心向媽媽、姐姐和鄰近的老繡工學習,十里八鄉,會繡百子圖的人,都成了她的師傅;甚至會繡花的婦女從家門口路過,她也會抓著機會現場求教指導。最后作品送到繡站里驗收,竟然被評上了三級,還拿了幾十塊工錢回來,全家人都舒了一口氣。

  以繡為業

  1978年,鄔建美高中畢業,卻因病與高考失之交臂。幸運的是,就在這個夏天,她選擇了從事湘繡。

  1979年,她被選入長沙縣湘繡廠的湘繡培訓班,開始接受正規的湘繡培訓。1984年考進長沙市湘繡總廠,成為一名繡工。

  悟性和好學,是刺繡不可或缺的品質。鄔建美膽子大,但心細多思,能夠觸類旁通。樹上的鳥雀、塘里的鴨鵝、院子里的貓狗,她都會仔細觀察,繡出來的動物形象就格外生動,毛發的色彩也更有層次。平日去公園散步或是外出考察學習,鄔建美最喜歡去觀察那些細節,諸如樹皮樹疤的紋理、少數民族姑娘裙子上的圖案,有時候也會用相機拍下來,研究用刺繡去表現的方法。

  在湘繡總廠,鄔建美被安排從事質量鑒定和下鄉臨棚技術指導,她白天傳授技藝時跟著大家一起繡花,晚上自己又做起學生,潛心鉆研刺繡中碰到的難題。1984年至1996年間,鄔建美先后在汨羅、湘陰、慈利、望城等地部分鄉鎮開點和招集繡工,在站點開展刺繡技術培訓,培訓了一大批湘繡技藝人才。但在前輩老師做質檢鑒定時,她又常常像學生一樣站在旁邊看他們怎么品評優劣,暗自思忖改進之道。

  湘繡擅長以絲絨線繡花,繡品絨面的花形具有真實感,素有“繡花能生香,繡鳥能聽聲,繡虎能奔跑,繡人能傳神”的美譽。但不是每個繡工都能成為大師。

  刺繡雖美,但以之為業,卻是費工又費眼,鄔建美卻初心不改,因此才有了棕櫚與芭蕉相間生長的茂密叢林,曼妙婀娜的傣族少女,生機勃勃的俄羅斯橡樹林,竹林、溪澗、春雨,農婦攜雛渡溪和雨滴泛起層層漣漪……還有她生于斯長于斯的那片武陵勝境。

  舉輕若重

  在中國語言文化里,繡花針一直是輕與巧的象征。繡花針有多輕?普通的稱重工具和稱重方法幾乎很難測量。

  傳統七夕習俗里有投針驗巧一項,即以面盆盛水,露天過夜,至七月初七白天太陽曬過,到中午或下午就可以“驗巧”了。繡花針輕輕平放在水面上,針不會下沉,水底下,就出現針影,這針影若是筆直的一條,即是“乞巧”失敗,若是針影形成各種形狀,或彎曲,或一頭粗、一頭細,或是其他形態,便是“得巧” 。繡花針在水面而不沉,固然有物理的解釋,但也可見其極輕極巧。

  但就是這極為輕靈的繡花針,在鄔建美的飛針走線之下,卻誕生了極為厚重的作品。

  在眾多作品中,單面繡掛屏《四羊方尊》 《人面紋方鼎》 《后母戊鼎》《龍虎尊》 《虎食人卣》是鄔建美的得意之作。用湘繡表現出三千年青銅器的鬼斧神工,這在湘繡歷史上尚屬首創。

  2007年,出土于寧鄉、我國現存最大商代青銅器四羊方尊回歸湖南的消息觸動了鄔建美:“為何不用湘繡去繡一幅四羊方尊? ”鄔建美去省博物館“求”來了各種照片,邀請國內頂級專家繪制畫稿,僅是畫稿就花了近1年時間。

  在刺繡過程中,為表現出青銅器的質感,鄔建美運用了8個色相、近百種色階變化的繡線,使用摻針、混針、滾筒針、散套針、齊針等針法,邊繡邊混色。而四羊方尊上那眾多類似羊角的祥云勾,只能用一絲線,甚至半絲線來繡。因針腳短、絲線細、摻入的色彩多,這幅只有90×70厘米的作品,鄔建美歷時兩年多才完成。文物專家們震撼了,從來沒想到用湘繡能繡出如此逼真的四羊方尊。

  2016年,鄔建美取材于中國國家博物館鎮館之寶后母戊鼎的形象創作的湘繡作品《后母戊鼎》被中國國家博物館收藏,中國國家博物館館長呂章申向鄔建美頒發了收藏證書。2017年初, 《龍虎尊》 《虎食人卣》兩幅作品也在百花迎春——中國文學藝術界春節大聯歡上亮相。

  花鳥、走獸、山水、人像是四大名繡的主攻題材,也是鄔建美所擅長的,刺繡發展數千年至今,在題材、設計理念和展示空間等方面都在尋求新的突破,以刺繡表現青銅器,是鄔建美之于刺繡的獨特貢獻,也可見她“承古法而不拘,創異針而求新”的主觀能動,和舉輕若重的審慎與匠心。

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