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長沙“老船長”王芳德創意傳播非遺文化 展現手工制船絕活

時間:2018/8/29 19:33:54  作者:戴嬈  來源:中國文明網  查看:432  評論:0
長沙“老船長”王芳德創意傳播非遺文化_展現手工制船絕活
  王芳德和他最新制作的手工船模楊幺戰船。圖片來源:長沙文明網 通訊員 戴嬈

  天氣炎熱,68歲的王芳德老人依然堅持在他的工作室忙碌著。王芳德指著工作室內一艘即將完工的船模介紹說,“這是我制造的第十六艘船模,是按照湖南省水運志上的楊幺義軍的戰船圖片制作的。”我們看到圖片上只有船的外觀,其他細節和內部結構全憑王老的經驗制作出來,據介紹,王老制作的船模都是按照真船復原按比例縮小,都可以下水航行。這艘船模整個船體成深黃色,船身2.2米,船的左右兩側裝有能轉動的槳輪,槳輪的數目有4個,每個槳輪上裝有8個葉片。據史料記載楊幺戰船“以輪激水,其行如飛”。

長沙“老船長”王芳德創意傳播非遺文化_展現手工制船絕活
  王芳德在給學生們講解湖湘水運史。圖片來源:長沙文明網 通訊員 戴嬈

長沙“老船長”王芳德創意傳播非遺文化_展現手工制船絕活
  王芳德近期制作的楊幺戰船全貌。圖片來源:長沙文明網 通訊員 戴嬈

  王芳德拿出《湖南水路交通史60年》,書上寫道大量的考古和文獻資料表明,在距今5300年前的城垣外環30—40米寬的壕溝的環壕沉積層中發掘出土的獨木舟槳、船舵以及木構件等,充分證明湖南船舶制造早在5000多年前就開始了,這是目前世界上發現的歷史最久遠的船構件。“我好想一晚上把記憶中的船全部做出來,但是這不可能”,王芳德感嘆道,做這樣一艘船模至少需要半年時間。

  長沙地處湘江中下游,河床寬闊,水勢平穩,利于船舶航行,歷來是一個重要水運港口。早在春秋戰國時期就有木帆船在這條水域行駛。曾經長沙從南站到新河有80多個碼頭,據水運志記載湘江水域曾經有一百多種木帆船,然而上世紀80年代之后,隨著社會不斷進步,船舶機械化的發展,木帆船漸漸消失。

  王芳德的人生與這些木帆船緊緊地聯系在一起。老船長王芳德1950年出生于一艘木帆船上,從爺爺輩開始,家就安在湘江木帆船上。15歲開始在自家船上學習駕船,17歲進入當時的長沙市木帆船合作社學駕機動船,1974年通過考試成為湖湘一名最年輕的輪船駕駛員,1980年升為湖南內河高等級船長,2005年退休。現居住在開福區芙蓉北路街道鳳亭社區。

  從2009年開始,王芳德憑著自己從小對湖湘木帆船所有的記憶,同時參考書籍、水運史記載的古船圖冊,陸續復原了16艘曾在湖湘地區航行的古船船模。

  對于王芳德制作的船模型,他滿是回憶。除了正在制作的楊幺戰船外,王老制作的其他船模都擺放在湖南湘陰洋沙湖國際旅游度假區進行展出。說起他最喜歡的船模,王老這樣介紹道,“我最喜歡的是‘航海號’,因為它是毛主席當年暢游湘江時曾乘坐過的船 ,80年代已經報廢拆解。”老人除了早上出去打球,晚上散步之外,時間基本都花在了制作船模上。

  除“航海號”之外,王芳德制作完工的船模中還有毛澤東也曾乘坐過的“華山號”客輪、 湖南第一艘外燃機船“長沙輪渡1號”、上世紀50年代被稱為“調羹把子船”的龍舟、往返于益陽與長沙裝運物資的“七板子船”以及瀏陽楸船、落倉木貨駁船、撈刀河倒扒子、寧鄉烏缸子等。

長沙“老船長”王芳德創意傳播非遺文化_展現手工制船絕活
  正在制船的王芳德。圖片來源:長沙文明網 通訊員 戴嬈

長沙“老船長”王芳德創意傳播非遺文化_展現手工制船絕活
  楊幺戰船的圖紙。圖片來源:長沙文明網 通訊員 戴嬈

長沙“老船長”王芳德創意傳播非遺文化_展現手工制船絕活
  王芳德的女兒在幫他制作的龍舟上色。圖片來源:長沙文明網 通訊員 戴嬈

  他積極參與長沙建設國際文化名城活動,給政府出點子、提建議,希望能建立湖湘船文化館,填補湖湘無船文化館空白;多年來他堅持做湖湘船文化歷史遺脈的保留工作,將造船的祖輩們創造的“財富”古木帆船制作技藝保留下來并傳承下去;多年來他利用手工技藝制作消失、滅跡的湘江木帆船模型和毛主席多次來長沙湘江游泳乘坐船舶的模型,現已有16艘,為建立湖湘船歷史博物館創造了基本條件。2011年,他提交的《挖掘湖湘特色 再現百舸爭流》一文榮獲長沙建設國際文化名城大討論活動“金點子”征集一等獎。2017年獲評開福區第一批非物質文化遺產代表性傳承人。

  為了傳承這門技藝,宣傳湖湘船文化,王芳德在寒暑假經常組織學生到他的工作室參觀學習,教學生們畫圖、制船,給同學們講解湖南的水運和造船歷史,并且以與船模拍照等培養孩子們的興趣,讓孩子們從基礎的木工畫船模圖學起,在一筆一劃之間,體會湖湘船文化的薪火相傳。

  作為湖湘較早一批船長之一,68歲的王芳德希望有關部門能夠建一座湖湘船文化博物館。更好的宣傳湖湘獨特的古船文化,成為湖湘特色文化歷史名片。(長沙文明網 通訊員 戴嬈)


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